Bronchiectasis is defined as abnormal permanent dilatation of the bronchi caused by loss of muscle and elastic tissue due to chronic necrotizing infections. It can be congenital (children with cystic fibrosis, Kartagener syndrome, immunodeficiency states) or acquired (post-infectious, systemic autoimmune diseases, bronchial obstruction by foreign bodies or tumors), most commonly located in the lower lobes, uni- or bilateral.
Macroscopically, the lung has an irregular surface in the affected area. On cut surface, there are multiple cavities / cystic formations (dilated bronchi), round or oval, of varying sizes, with a thick, fibrous, gray-whitish wall and muco-purulent content, associated with changes of the adjacent lung parenchyma (areas of condensation or fibrosis). With progression, the lung parenchyma can be fully replaced by dysfunctional bronchial dilatation.